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VOLUME 17 NUMBER 1 MARCH 1993
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1. METHODOLOGIES FROM MACHINE LEARNING IN DATA ANALYSIS AND SOFTWARE
D. Michie, The Turing Institute, George House, 36 North Hanover Street,
Glasgow G1 2AD
pp. 3-12
keywords: artificial intelligence, machine learning, software
abstract:
In the last few decades the rise of computing and
telecommunications has flooded the world of government,
business, medicine and engineering with unprecedented volumes of
stored data. These databases provide the raw material for
information supply but have been largely impenetrable as
potential sources of export knowledge. Computer-oriented
techniques can now be used, however, in integration with
established methods from classical statistics to generate
rule-structured classifiers which not only make a better job of
classifying new data sampled from the same source but also
possess the quality of clear explanatory structure. New
developments in the computer induction of decision rules have
contributed to two areas, multivariate data analysis and
computer assisted software engineering. Practical connections
between the two are thereby coming to light. This paper reviews
some of the more significant of these developments.
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2. ANALYTICAL FORM SOLUTION OF THE DIRECT KINEMATICS OF A 4-4
FULLY IN-PARALLEL ACTUATED SIX DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM MECHANISM
C. Innocenti, DIEM - Facolt\`a di Ingegneria - Universit\`a di
Bologna, Viale Risorgimento, 2 - 40136 Bologna -ITALY,
Tel 051-6443450 - Fax 051-6443446, e-mail:Meccapp8@ingbo1.cineca.it
AND
V. Parenti-Castelli, Istituto di Ingegneria, Facolt\`a di
Ingegneria - Universit\`a di Ferrara, Via Scandiana, 21 - 41100
Ferrara - ITALY, Tel +39-532-65150 - Fax +39-532-740983
pp. 13-20
keywords: robots, kinematics, parallel mechanisms, closure equations
abstract:
The paper presents the direct position analysis in analytical
form of a six-degree-of-freedom 4-4 fully-parallel mechanism.
For a given set of actuator displacements the mechanism
becomes a structure and the analysis finds all the possible
closures of the structure. The analysis is performed in two
steps. First, the two closures of the tetrahedron-like
subchain of the structure are found. Then, for each
tetrahedron closure, two transcendental equations are
determined that represent the closure of the remaining part of
the 4-4 structure. The two equations can be reduced to
algebraic equations and, after eliminating the unwanted
unknowns, a final 8th order equation in only one unknown is
obtained. Hence, the maximum number of possible real
closures of the 4-4 structure is sixteen. Numerical examples
are reported which illustrate and confirm the new
theoretical result.
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3. TOWARDS A MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF NATURAL-LANGUAGE COMMUNICATION
Vladimir A. Fomichov, Department ``Math. Provision of
Information-Processing and Control Systems", Moscow Institute of
Electronics and Mathematics, Bolshoy Vuzovsky pereulok, 3/12,
109028 Moscow, Russia, Fax: 007/095/227 28 07 (to Fomichov)
E-mail: onims@miem.msk.su (to Fomichov)
pp. 21-34
keywords: communication, formalization, integral formal
semantics, knowledge, linguocybernetics, mathematical
linguistics, natural language processing
abstract:
The need of effective mathematical means for solving a number of
tasks associated with the design of
natural--language---processing systems (NLPSs) is argued. The
basic ideas of cognitive science concerning natural language
(NL) understanding are stated. It is shown that the main popular
approaches to the formalization of NL--semantics do not satisfy
the requirements of cognitive science and computer science as
concerns many important aspects of NL--communication.
The interdisciplinary problem of developing a mathematical
theory of NL--communication (as a collection of models based on
common mathematical means of describing knowledge and texts'
structured meanings and being useful for the design of NLPSs) is
posed.
Several principles of a new approach to the mathematical study
of NL--communication called Integral Formal Semantics are set
forth. This approach provides, in particular, the definition of
a new class of formal languages called standard K--languages.
Some new opportunities afforded by standard K--languages for
modeling NL--communication are characterized.
The conclusion is drawn that the premises have been created
already for developing in larger scope than before the
researches aimed at working out a mathematical theory of
NL--communication. It is noted that such a theory will be, in
essence, cognitive mathematical linguistics and may be called
also mathematical linguocybernetics taking into account the
peculiarities of its methods and models.}
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4. ALPHA AXP OVERVIEW
Jurij \v{S}ilc, Borut Robi\v{c},
Jo\v{z}ef Stefan Institute, Laboratory for Computer
Architectures, Jamova 39, Ljubljana, Slovenia,
Phone: +38 61 159 199, Fax: +38 61 161 029
E-mail: jurij.silc@ijs.si or borut.robic@ijs.si
AND
Jo\v{z}e Buh, EuroComputer Systems, Digital Authorized
Representative, Vojkova 50, Ljubljana, Slovenia,
Phone: +38 61 182 500, Fax: +38 61 181 005
pp. 35-40
keywords: Alpha AXP architecture, RISC architecture, multiple
instruction issue, shared-memory multiprocessing, overview
abstract:
The paper describes the Alpha AXP architecture and some existing
implementations. It is a true 64-bit RISC architecture supporting
multiple instruction issue, shared-memory multiprocessing, and
several today's leading operating system environments. The first
Alpha AXP microprocessor DECchip 21064 and several hardware
products using it are also briefly described.
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5. OPEN SECURE MODEL AND ITS FUNCTIONALITY IN NETWORKS WITH
VALUE-ADDED SERVICES
Borka Jerman-Bla\v{z}i\v{c}, Jo\v{z}ef Stefan Institute, Jamova
39, Ljubljana, Slovenia
pp. 41-51
keywords: security mechanisms, kryptography, networks,
value-added services
abstract:
The contribution gives an overview of the security functions
employed in the Value Added Networks technology. The overview
represents briefly the user requirements for secure
communication, the basic threats to which communication systems
are exposed and the framework of Open Secure Model defining the
security functions and services to be used in an open network.
The security mechanisms used for provision of the security
services and functions are briefly described. Several
applications used in Value Added Networks with inbuilt security
functions are briefly introduced at the end.
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6. REAL AI
Matja\v{z} Gams, Jo\v{z}ef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39,
Ljubljana, Slovenia, Phone: +386 61 1259 199
E-mail: matjaz.gams@ijs.si
pp. 53-58
keywords: artificial intelligence, viewpoint
abstract:
In the first part, four viewpoints on AI are presented. It is
proposed that a program exhibiting AI is one that can change as
a result of interactions with the environment. While no program
can be proclaimed as intelligent at the moment, intelligence may
be just an emerging property of successful information machines
or beings. In the second part, ideas, problems and misconceptions
about AI are analysed through grouping into three categories:
(1) facts - opinions that are supported by facts; (2) legends -
opinions, based on facts but largely exaggerated; (3) myths -
opinions not based on facts.
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7. REGULAR GRAPHS ARE `DIFFICULT' FOR COLOURING
Janez ~\v Zerovnik, University of Maribor, Faculty of Technical
Sciences, Smetanova 17, Maribor, Slovenia
pp. 59-63
keywords: graph colouring, decision problem, NP-completeness,
regular graphs
abstract:
Let k be 3 or 4. In this two cases we prove that the decision
problem of k-colourability when restricted to Delta-regular
graphs is NP-complete for any Delta >= k+1.
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8. METAPHYSICALISM OF INFORMING
Anton P. \v{Z}eleznikar, Volari\v{c}eva ul. 8, 61111 Ljubljana,
Slovenia, anton.p.zeleznikar@ijs.si}
pp. 65-80
keywords: counterinforming, cyclicity, informational embedding,
informing, intelligence, metaphysicalism, parallelism
abstract:
This paper is an introduction to the phenomena of metaphysical
informing occurring within an informational entity. The basic
question is how to structure and how to organize the processes
of informing within the metaphysical triplet of informing,
counterinforming, and informational embedding, which perform
cyclically, in parallel, and spontaneously in a complex
entity--metaphysical cycle. The problem of the so--called
metaphysical informing (called metaphysicalism) has to be solved
conceptually and, then, constructively, that is, in a
language--formalized (machined) way. The open cyclic--parallel
and spontaneous informing hides the potentiality of intelligence
(intelligent information) which through informing,
counterinforming, and informational embedding of an informational
entity in question comes to the informational surface (of an
observer). The aim of this paper is to expose certain
possibilities of metaphysical informing within machines,
programs, and tools performing in an informationally arising
environment. Metaphysicalism, that is, cyclic, spontaneous,
entity--intentional and informationally open informing, seems to
be the most fundamental problem which has to be solved formally
(constructively) on the way to informational machine. To some
extent, the possibilities of such proceedings are already
visible.