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VOLUME 19 NUMBER 2 MAY 1995
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1. Reliability Optimization of Concurrent Software with Redundancy
Jie Wu and Kejun Yao, Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431
pp. 291 - 300
Keywords: concurrent systems, fault tolerance, fault-tree, software
reliability
Abstract: We consider in this paper an optimization model of concurrent
software with redundancy. The software fault-tolerance technique used
is conversation, a special mechanism for concurrent systems. Two
optimization models are combinatorial model and fault-tree model which
calculate system reliability based on the same method but under
different fault assumptions. These two models are illustrated by
examples.
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2. An Algorithm for Self-Learning and Self-Completing Fuzzy Control
Rules
Xiaozhong Li and Shuo Bai, National Research Center for Intelligent
Computing Systems(NCIC), P. O. Box 2704, Beijing 100080. P. R., Fax:
86-10-2541342, Tel:86-10- 2534642, email:bai@tango.ncic.ac.cn
AND
Zemin Liu, Beijing University of Posts & Telecommunications
pp. 301 - 312
Keywords: self-learning, self-completing, fuzzy control
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a method of generating control
rules for fuzzy logic controllers, called an algorithm of self-learning
and self-completing (ASLSC). This method can learn to generaterules
from the sample data with the unsupervised competitive learning (UCL)
of the neural network. If a rule table generated is not full, the ASLSC
method can fill those blanks in the rule table with proper rules.
Besides, ASLSC can determine automatically the universes of discourse
of fuzzy variables. The simulations on an inverted pendulum system and
the experiments on temperature controlling of an industrial electric
heating ring show that ASLSC is practicable and effective.
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3. Performance Bounds on Scheduling Parallel Tasks with Setup Time on
Hypercube Systems
Jiann-Fu Lin and Sao-Jie Chen, Department of Management, Takming Junior
College of Commerce, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.
pp. 313 - 318
Keywords: heuristic algorithm, scheduling, parallel task, setup time,
performance bounds
Abstract: This paper investigates the problem of scheduling "parallel
tasks" with consideration of setup time on a d-dimensional hypercube
system, where scheduled tasks are independent such that each task can
simultaneously require a subcube for its processing under the
constraint that the dimension of a required subcube cannot be greater
than the maximum parallelism dimension of a task. Whenever there is a
switching of schedule from a task to another one, setup time is
necessary. The objective of this problem is to find a schedule with
minimum finish time, such a scheduling problem is NP-hard. Therefore,
in this paper, we will propose two heuristic algorithms for this kind
of problem and derive their performance bounds, respectively.
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4. HLO: A Higher-Order Deductive Object-Oriented Database Language
Mengchi Liu, Department of Computer Science, University of Regina,
Saskatchewan Canada S4S 0A2
pp. 319 - 332
Keywords: deductive databases, object-oriented databases, fixpoint
semantics, least model semantics
Abstract: This paper proposes a higher-order deductive object-oriented
database language called HLO. This language is capable of directly and
naturally supporting object-oriented features such as object identity,
complex objects, classes, and multiple inheritance. It supports the
separation of schema and instance but treats schema as meta data so
that schema and inheritance information can be represented and queried
in the same way as ordinary data. The language is given a firm logical
foundation in the form of the Herbrand-like semantics. The main novelty
of the language is the incorporation of the well-definedness and
well-typedness constraints in its semantics. A number of interesting
semantic properties are investigated. The intended semantics of an HLO
program is given by the least and justified model if it can be obtained
by a bottom-up least fixpoint computation. The necessary condition to
guarantee the existence of the intended semantics and the decidability
of checking the necessary condition are also discussed.
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5. On the Balance of the Informational Exchange, Its Flow, and
Fractional Revealing Large Informational Quanta, in the `Hot' Living
Systems (T<0_)
Jiri Slechta, Member of New York Academy of Sciences, 18 Lidgett Hill,
Leeds 8, LS8 1PE, U.K.
pp. 333 - 344
Keywords: `hot' living systems (T < 0_), informational exchange,
informational quanta
Abstract: It is discussed the case of the informational `saser' in the
`hot' living systems (T<0), for T < 0_ (the absolute negative zero),
and explained why the large quanta of information, like that stored and
developed by a genius, or a voluminous new discovery, or a marital
love, spread less easily, except for T dserp, 0_, than the smaller
quanta, like a random love. A way how to improve this property is to
design a sparse set of smaller quanta which span the large quantum
(e.g. a kind of teaching the large issue, or policy making about it).
It is discussed how to design such a set. In the balance of the
equivalence of the various forms of the spanning, a generalized
equation of the conservation `energy' figures the relative, and not the
absolute, precisions. There is provided a formalized framework of the
intercommunication among n persons. On the basis of it there is also
given the first exact explanation, in existence, why the `two house'
sex is superior to any other form of it, why an offspring of higher
animals needs two parents, the theory of measurement of the objective
reality, the relation between the theory and experiment, the difference
between working of the brain of the people with associative and
verbatim memories, and modern and underdeveloped societies, etc. The
theory presented here is important for the design of an artificial
intelligence (the logic of the real self-organizing systems---(fuzzy)
physical logic), and methodology of teaching, the theoretical design of
the optimal society, etc.
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6. Elements of metamathematical and informational calculus
Anton P. @eleznikar, An Active Member of the New York Academy of
Sciences, Volariceva ulica 8, SI 61111 Ljubljana, Slovenia
pp. 345 - 370
Keywords: axioms of parallelism, serialism, circularity and
spontaneity; catalogue of informational rules; decomposition axioms,
decomposition theorem, deduction theorems, implicative axioms,
inference rules; informational calculus, predicate calculus,
propositional calculus; substitution rule; various axioms and theorems
(implicative, conjunctive, disjunctive, equivalent, negatory, etc.)
Abstract: This article deals with problems pertaining to the elements
of axiomatics in traditional (mathema cal, symbolic, philosophical)
logic and to the problems of newly emerging axiomatics in informational
logic. Informational axioms can be derived from propositional and
predicate axioms and then, particularized and universalized within the
informational domain. Traditional axiomatic formulas of the
propositional and predicate calculus can become a rebounding cause for
the construction of essentially different axioms in general
informational theory. It is shown how propositional and predicate
axioms and rules can be informationally extended for the needs of the
general informational theory.
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7. Nonlinear Adaptive Prediction Algorithm and Its Parallel
Implementation
Ryszard A. Wasniowski, New Mexico Highlands University, Las Vegas, NM
Phone: (505) 271-1288, E-mail: rwasniowski@acm.org
pp. 371 - 378
Keywords: parallel computing, gmdh algorithm
Abstract: This paper discusses and shows how computation intensive
engineering problems can be modeled on parallel-like simulators and
computed efficiently on massively parallel computers. Designed with
tens of thousands of processing elements, these machines now offer
substantially improved computation times, improved cost performance,
and allow rapidly reach higher performance levels. Networks of
workstations and software packages such as PVM is another attempt to
provide a unified framework within which large parallel programs can be
developed on a collection of heterogeneous machines, and make easy
transition from sequential processing into parallel processing. The
ease of developing parallel algorithms for systems identification using
gmdh algorithm will be discussed.
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8. Termination Conditions for Parallel Shape Recognition
Zbigniew M. Wojcik and Barbara E. Wojcik, Smart Machines, 13703
Morningbluff Dr., San Antonio, TX 78216, USA.
pp. 379 - 390
Keywords: parallel shape recognition
Abstract: Elementary features are detected by calculating the number of
objects inside partly overlapping windows fixed in an image plane. Each
window's contents is processed by a separate processing element (PE) on
a SIMD grid or pyramid architecture. Two neighboring feature chunks are
merged by adjacent PEs, and the merged feature chunks are joined in
each next lth parallel step by every 2lth PE possessing complementary
and adjacent feature. The shape recognition terminates if a complete
set of features (such as curve bounds, endings, corners, segments,
regions forks and junctions) making a whole object meet together on one
PE. This complete set is proved to be sufficient to terminate the shape
recognition. Hierarchy of elementary features for a merging process is
established to recognize object bounds and more primitive features
first to have a complete feature set adequate for the consideration by
the termination condition at a given level of parallel image
recognition (i.e., primal sketch, 2 1/2D sketch and 3D world model).
The approach has the property of mapping of image segments directly
into phrases and English sentences.
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9. Fundamental Tasks in Software Development Environments
Lars Bendix, Institute for Electronic Systems, Aalborg University,
Fredrik Bajers Vej 7E, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark E-mail:
bendix@iesd.auc.dk
pp. 391 - 406
Keywords: software development environments, taxonomy, configuration
management, version control, personnel management, resource control
Abstract: After having established the basic terms of the field of
software development, we present a conceptual framework to help
establish the key tasks to be performed in this field. The field is
characterized by two orthogonal concepts: Programming-in-the-Large
(PitL) and Programming-in-the-Many (PitM). These concepts can be
further subdivided into the tasks of Configuration Management and
Version Control (for PitL), and Personnel Management and Resource
Management (for PitM). The main body of this paper is dedicated to a
thorough analysis of these tasks. The conceptual framework is then
applied to two systems to show how to use it to evaluate and compare
systems. Finally is given a discussion of the presented framework, both
in its own rightand with relation to other work.
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10. A Sound and Complete Axiomatization of Functional Dependencies: A
Formal System With Only Two Inference Rules
Mirko Malekovic, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Organization and
Informatics, Pavlinska 2, 42000 Varazdin, Croatia
pp. 407 - 418
Keywords: completeness, formal systems, functional dependencies,
inference rules, soundness
Abstract: A formal system for functional dependencies is introduced.
The formal system contains only two inference rules: (I) Reflexivity
and (II) Generalized transitivity.